THE UNDERGROUND NAZI INVASION OF THE UNITED STATES, Part 11
1. Office of Alien Property Custodian, Vesting Order Number 248. Signed by Leo T. Crowley, Alien Property Custodian, executed October 20, 1942; F.R. Doc. 42-11568; Filed, November 6, 1942. 7 Fed. Reg. 9097 (November 7, 1942).
The "New York City Directory of Directors", 1930s-40s, list Prescott Bush as a director of Union Banking Corp. from 1934 through 1943.
2. Alien Property Custodian Vesting Order No. 259: SEAMLESS STEEL EQUIPMENT CORPORATION; Vesting Order Number 261: Holland- American Trading Corp.
3. Alien Property Custodian Vesting Order No. 370: SILESIAN-AMERICAN CORP.
4. "New York Times," December 16, 1944, ran a five-paragraph page 25 article on actions of the New York State Banking Department. Only the last sentence refers to the NAZI bank, as follows: "The Union Banking Corporation, 39 Broadway, New York, has received authority to change its principal place of business to 120 Broadway."
The "Times" omitted the fact that the Union Banking Corporation had been seized by the government for trading with the enemy, and the fact that 120 Broadway was the address of the government's Alien Property Custodian.
5. Fritz Thyssen, "I Paid Hitler", 1941, reprinted in (Port Washington, N.Y.: Kennikat Press, 1972), p. 133. Thyssen says his contributions began with 100,000 marks given in October 1923, for Hitler's attempted "putsch" against the constitutional government.
6. Confidential memorandum from U.S. Embassy, Berlin, to the U.S. Secretary of State, April 20, 1932, on microfilm in "Confidential Reports of U.S. State Dept., 1930s, Germany," at major U.S. libraries.
7. October 5, 1942, Memorandum to the Executive Committee of the Office of Alien Property Custodian, stamped CONFIDENTIAL, from the Division of Investigation and Research, Homer Jones, Chief. Now declassified in United States National Archives, Suitland, Maryland annex. Note Record Group 131, Alien Property Custodian, investigative reports, in file box relating to Vesting Order Number 248.
8. "Elimination of German Resources for War": Hearings Before a Subcommittee of the Com mittee on Military Affairs, United States Senate, Seventy-Ninth Congress; Part 5, Testimony of [the United States] Treasury Department, July 2, 1945. Page 507: Table of Vereinigte Stahlwerke output, figures are percent of German total as of 1938;THYSSEN organization including Union Banking Corporation pp. 727-731.
9. Robert Sobel, "The Life and Times of Dillon Read" (New York: Dutton-Penguin, 1991), pp. 92-111. The Dillon Read firm cooperated in the development of Sobel's book.
10. George Walker to Averell Harriman, August 11, 1927, in W. Averell Harriman papers, Library of Congress (hereafter "WAH papers").
11. "Iaccarino" to G. H. Walker, RCA Radiogram Sept. 12, 1927.
12. Andrew Boyle, "Montagu Norman" (London: Cassell, 1967).
Sir Henry Clay, "Lord Norman" (London, MacMillan & Co., 1957), pp. 18, 57, 70-71.
John A. Kouwenhouven, "Partners in Banking ... BROWN BROTHERS HARRIMAN" (Garden City: Doubleday & Co., 1969).
13. Coordination of much of the HITLER PROJECT took place at a single New York address. The UNION BANKING CORPORATION had been set up by George Walker at 39 Broadway. Management of the HAM- BURG - AMERIKA LINE, carried out through HARRIMAN'S AMERICAN SHIP AND COMMERCE CORP., was also set up by George Walker at 39 Broadway.
14. Interrogation of Fritz Thyssen, EF/Me/1 of Sept. 4, 1945 in U.S. Control Council records, photostat on page 167 in Anthony Sutton, "An Introduction to The Order" (Billings, Mt.: Liberty House Press, 1986).
15. "Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression, Supplement B", by the Office of United States Chief of Counsel for Prosecution of Axis Criminality, U. S. Government Printing Office, (Washington, D.C., 1948), pp. 1597, 1686.
16. "CONSOLIDATED SILESIAN STEEL CORPORATION - [minutes of the] Meeting of Board of Directors," October 31, 1930 (WAH papers), shows Averell Harriman as Chairman of the Board.
Prescott Bush to W.A. Harriman, Memorandum December 19, 1930 on their HARRIMAN FIFTEEN CORP.
Annual Report of United Konigs and Laura Steel and Iron Works for the year 1930 (WAH papers) lists "Dr. Friedrich Flick ... Berlin" and "William Averell Harriman ... New York" on the Board of Directors.
"Harriman Fifteen Coporation Securities Position February 28, 1931," WAH papers. This report shows Harriman Fifteen Corporation hold- ing 32,576 shares in Silesian Holding Co. V.T.C. worth (in scarce depression dollars) $1,628,800, just over half the value of the Harriman Fifteen Corporation's total holdings.
The "New York City Directory of Directors" volumes for the 1930s (available at the Library of Congress) show Prescott Sheldon Bush and W. Averell Harriman as the directors of Harriman Fifteen Corp.
"Appointments," (three typed pages) marked "Noted May 18 1931 W.A.H.," (among the papers from Prescott Bush's New York Office of Brown Brothers Harriman, WAH papers), lists a meeting between Averell Harriman and Friedrich Flick in Berlin at 4:00 P.M., Wednesday April 22, 1931. This was followed immediately by a meeting with Wilhelm Cuno, chief executive of the Hamburg-Amerika Line.
The "Report To the Stockholders of the Harriman Fifteen Corporation," October 19, 1933 (WAH papers) names G.H. Walker as president of the corporation. It shows the Harriman Fifteen Corp.'s address as 1 Wall Street -- the location of G.H. Walker and Co.
17. "Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression, Supplement B", "op. cit.," p. 1686.
18. Jim Flaherty (a BBH manager, Prescott Bush's employee), March 19, 1934 to W.A. Harriman.
"In Roland's absence Pres[cott] thought it adviseable for me to let you know that we received the following cable from [our European representative] Rossi dated March 17th [relating to conflict with the Polish government]...."
19. Harriman Fifteen Corporation notice to stockholders January 7, 1935, under the name of George Walker, President.
20. Order No. 370: Silesian-American Corp. Executed November 17, 1942. Signed by Leo T. Crowley, Alien Prop. Custodian. F.R. Doc. 42-14183; Filed, December 31, 1942; 8 Fed. Reg. 33 (Jan. 1, 1943).
The order confiscated the Nazis' holdings of 98,000 shares of common and 50,000 shares of preferred stock in Silesian-American.
The Nazi parent company in Breslau, Germany wrote to Averell Harri- man at 59 Wall St. on Aug. 5, 1940, with "an invitation to take part in the regular meeting of the members of the Bergwerksgesellsc[h]aft Georg von Giesche's Erben...." WAH papers.
21. Sept. 25, 1942, Memorandum To the Executive Committee of the Office of Alien Property Custodian, stamped CONFIDENTIAL, from the Division of Investigation and Research, Homer Jones, Chief. Now declassified in United States National Archives, Suitland, Maryland annex. See Record Group 131, Alien Property Custodian, investigative reports, in file box relating to Vesting Order Number 370.
22. George Walker was a director of American Ship and Commerce from its organization through 1928. Consult "New York City Directory of Directors".
"Harriman Fifteen Corporation Securities Position February 28, 1931," "op. cit." The report lists 46,861 shares in the American Ship & Commerce Corp.
See "Message from Mr. Bullfin," August 30, 1934 (Harriman Fifteen section, WAH papers) for the joint supervision of Bush and Walker, respectively director and president of the corporation.
23. Cuno was later exposed by Walter Funk, Third Reich Press Chief and Under Secretary of Propaganda, in Funk's postwar jail cell at Nuremberg; but Cuno had died just as Hitler was taking power. William L. Shirer, L., "The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich" (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1960), p. 144. "Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression, Supplement B", "op. cit.," p. 1688.
24. See "Elimination of German Resources for War," "op. cit.," pages 881-882 on Voegler.
See Annual Report of the (Hamburg-Amerikanische-Packetfahrt-Aktien- Gesellschaft (Hapag or Hamburg-Amerika Line), March 1931, for the board of directors. A copy is in the New York Public Library Annex at 11th Avenue, Manhattan.
25. "Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression -- Supplement B," "op. cit.," pp. 1178, 1453-1454, 1597, 1599.
See "Elimination of German Resources for War," "op. cit.," pp. 870-72 on SCHROEDER; p. 730 on Groeninger.
26. Annual Report of Hamburg-Amerika, "op. cit."
Baron Rudolph Schroeder, Sr. to Averell Harriman, November 14, 1932. K[night] W[ooley] handwritten note and draft reply letter, December 9, 1932.
In his letter, Baron Rudolph refers to the family's American affiliate, J. Henry Schroder [name anglicized], of which Allen Dulles was a director, and his brother John Foster Dulles was the principal attorney.
Baron Bruno Schroder of the British branch was adviser to Bank of England Governor Montagu Norman, and Baron Bruno's partner Frank Cyril Tiarks was Norman's co-director of the Bank of England throughout Norman's career. Kurt von Schroeder was Hjalmar Schacht's delegate to THE BANK OF INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENTS [B.I.S.] in Geneva, where many of the financial arrangements for the Nazi regime were made by Montagu Norman, Schacht and the Schroeders for several years of the Hitler regime right up to the outbreak of World War II.
27. Confidential memorandum from U.S. Embassy, Berlin, "op. cit."
28. U.S. Senate "Nye Committee" hearings, Sept. 14, 1934, pp. 1197-1198, extracts from letters of Col. William N. Taylor, dated June 27, 1932 and January 9, 1933.
29. American Ship and Commerce Corporation to Dr. Max Warburg, March 7, 1933.
Max Warburg had brokered the sale of Hamburg-Amerika to Harriman and Walker in 1920. Max's brothers controlled the Kuhn Loeb investment banking house in New York, the firm which had staked old E.H. Harriman to his 1890s buyout of the giant Union Pacific Railroad.
Max Warburg had long worked with Lord Milner and others of the racialist British Round Table concerning joint projects in Africa and Eastern Europe. He was an advisor to Hjalmar Schacht for several decades and was a top executive of Hitler's Reichsbank. The reader may consult David Farrer, "The Warburgs: The Story of A Family" (New York: Stein and Day, 1975).
30. Max Warburg, at M.M. Warburg and Co., Hamburg, to Averill [sic] Harriman, c/o Messrs. Brown Brothers Harriman & Co., 59 Wall Street, New York, N.Y., March 27, 1933.
31. This correspondence, and the joint statement of the Jewish organi- zations, are reproduced in Moshe R. Gottlieb, "American Anti-Nazi Resistance, 1933-41: An Historical Analysis" (New York: Ktav Publish- ing House, 1982).
32. "Investigation of Nazi Propaganda Activities and Investigation of Certain Other Propaganda Activities": Public Hearings before A Sub- committee of the Special Committee on Un-American Activities, United States House of Representatives, Seventy Third Congress, New York City, July 9-12, 1934 -- Hearings No. 73-NY-7 (Washington, D.C., U.S. Govt. Printing Office, 1934). See testimony of Capt. Frederick C. Mensing, John Schroeder, Paul von Lilienfeld-Toal, and summaries by Committee members.
See "New York Times," July 16, 1933, p. 12, for organizing of Nazi Labor Front at North German Lloyd, leading to Hamburg-Amerika after merger.
33. American Ship and Commerce Corporation telegram to Rudolph Brinckmann at M.M. Warburg, June 12, 1936.
Rudolph Brinckmann to Averell Harriman at 59 Wall St., June 20, 1936, with enclosed note transmitting Helferrich's letter.
Reply to Dr. Rudolph Brinkmann c/o M.M. Warburg and Co, July 6, 1936, WAH papers. The file copy of this letter carries no signature, but is presumably from Averell Harriman.
34. Office of Alien Property Custodian, Vesting Order Number 126. Signed by Leo T. Crowley, Alien Property Custodian, executed August 28, 1942. F.R. Doc. 42-8774; Filed September 4, 1942, 10:55 A.M.; 7 F.R. 7061 (Number 176, Sept. 5, 1942.)
July 18, 1942, Memorandum To the Executive Committee of the Office of Alien Property Custodian, stamped CONFIDENTIAL, from the Division of Investigation and Research, Homer Jones, Chief. Now declassified in United States National Archives, Suitland, Maryland annex. See Record Group 131, Alien Property Custodian, investigative reports, in file box relating to Vesting Order Number 126.
35. "New York Times," May 20, 1933. Leading up to this agreement is a telegram which somehow escaped the shredder. It is addressed to Nazi official Hjalmar Schacht at the Mayflower Hotel, Washington, dated May 11, 1933: "Much disappointed to have missed seeing you Tueday afternoon.... I hope to see you either in Washington or New York before you sail.
with my regards W.A. Harriman" (WAH papers).
36. Dulles to Bush, letter and draft reply in WAH papers.
37. "New York Times," Jan. 19, 1938.